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干货 | 法律英语词义辨析:婚姻状况

凝轩 1999-10-26 10:26:57 热度:5365°C

花样年华

我从来没有想到原来婚姻是这么复杂,还以为一个人做的好就行了,可是两个人在一起,单是自己做的好是不够的。

——王家卫 《花样年华》

Bigamy / Digamy / Monogamy / Polygamy

以上单词均可用来表示某人的婚姻状况

Bigamy

n.重婚(罪)

行为人在第一次婚烟关系存续期间自愿、自觉地缔结第二次婚姻的行为。即是指一个男子同时有两个生存的妻子或一个妇女同时有两个生存的丈夫的情况。

干货 | 法律英语词义辨析:婚姻状况

在美国,如果具有以下情形之一,已婚者缔结或将要缔结另一次婚烟的行为是轻罪重婚罪:①行为人确信前配偶已死亡的;②行为人已连续5年同前配偶完全分居并不知其仍生存的;③法庭已作出判决意欲终止前不合格婚姻或宣布其无效,但行为人不知该判决是无效的;④行为人有充分理由认为他有法定权利再婚的。

在美国的某些司法管辖区,夫妻关系存续期间的同居行为也被认为是重婚罪。重婚罪最初作为教会法上的犯罪而于1603年被列为死刑重罪。如果第一次婚姻在法律上是无效的话,则不构成犯罪。如今,在教会法中,一个教士连续同两个妻子结婚便意味着是一种犯罪。在第一个妻子死后与第二个妻子结婚或与寡妇结婚均为犯罪,将被取消神职人员特权[ benefit of clergy]。

在英国,未婚行为人明知对方已婚而与其结婚的行为,亦构成重婚罪,以二级主犯惩罚。被指控犯重婚罪的人的配偶可以不经被指控人的同意被传唤作为证人,但是,对于这种证人,在其宣誓作证前应被告知其作证行为不应受到强迫。因此,第一个“妻子”或“丈夫”是不被强迫作证的证人。当第一次婚姻被证实时,第二个“妻子”或“丈夫”为被追作证的证人。

在英国,如果重婚者中一方的属人法允许多配偶制,并且该人已在其定居的国家多次婚配,这种行为不构成重婚罪。

——元照英美法词典

n.

1. The act of marrying one person while legally married to another. Bigamy is distinct from adultery. It is a criminal offense if it is committed knowingly. In 1878, the U.S. Supreme Court held that the government was not constitutionally prohibited from banning Mormon polygamy.

2. Eccles. law. The act of marrying a widow or widower, or a divorced person. Somewhat surprisingly, sense 2 is valid even under modern ecclesiastical law, but it is not an offense, only a bar to entering holy orders. Also termed sequential marriage.

——Black"s Law Dictionary

Digamy

n.再婚

前一次婚姻终止后的再次结婚。例如某人第一个妻子死后,他与第二个妻子结婚。它不同于重婚[ bigamy],后者指同时有两个妻子。(=deuterogamy)

——元照英美法词典

干货 | 法律英语词义辨析:婚姻状况

Deuterogamy

n. (fr. Greek deuterogamia “second marriage” ]

A second marriage after the death of or divorce from the first spouse, or after an annulment of a first marriage. - Also termed digamma; digamy.

——Black"s Law Dictionary

Monogamy

n. 一夫一妻制

与重婚[ bigamy]和多配偶制[ polygamy]相对。

——元照英美法词典

n.

1. The custom prevalent in most modern cultures restricting a person to one spouse at a time.

2. The state or condition of being married to only one spouse.

3. The state or condition of being in a relationship and having only one sexual partner during that time.

serial monogamy.

干货 | 法律英语词义辨析:婚姻状况

Sexual exclusivity at any given time through a series of sexual relationships, as opposed to one long relationship or several simultaneous relationships.

——Black"s Law Dictionary

Polygamy

n. 多配偶

一夫多妻或一妻多夫,指同时与数人存有婚姻关系。“重婚”[ bigamy]指两次结婚;而多配偶则是多次结婚,即超过两次。多配偶在欧洲和美国均构成犯罪,但在有些国家则为合法。

——元照英美法词典

n.

The state or practice of having more than one spouse simultaneously -Also termed simultaneous polygamy plural marriage.

2. Hist. The fact or practice of having more than one spouse during one"s lifetime, though never simultaneously.

Until the third century, polygamy included remarriage after a spouse’s death because a valid marriage bond was considered indissoluble. -Also termed successive polygamy serial polygamy; sequential marriage

"Polygamy (many marriages) is employed at times as a synonym of bigamy and at other times to indicate the simultaneous marriage of two or more spouses, "

“his one-marriage-at-a-time rule behind which the legal systems of the West have seemingly thrown so much weight is not what a sociologist would call a general prohibition of polygamy. Polygamy can be simultaneous (if more than one spouse is simultaneously present) or successive (if spouses are married one after the other). Only simultaneous polygamy is prohibited by the laws with which we are here concerned. These statutes reserve the use of the wore polygamy for that kind which is not very common among us. They do not affect the serial form, which is so very popular in the United States and Western Europe that…the law is fast changing to adapt to it.”

——Black"s Law Dictionary

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