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干货 | 法律英语词义辨析:证据

xupan 1999-10-27 10:12:54 热度:8956°C

前言

叮叮叮,周五了,小蚁君如期而至,法官在判案的原则是“以事实为依据,以法律为准绳”,事实的还原是通过证据来反映的,律师在辩论的时候也主要是靠证据来支撑论点,说话做事都需要有凭有据,不然就是诽谤,满口胡言,每个人都需要为自己的言行负责。除此之外,爱是否也需要证据呢?小蚁君喜欢的歌手张信哲唱过《爱的证据》,或许在这首歌里能找到不一样的答案。

爱的证据 张信哲-直觉

听完歌之后我们来进入今天的正题“关于证据法律英语中是怎样表述的?“

evidence

evidence n.【证据】用以证明未知的或有争议的事实或主张的真实性的事实或方法。在英美证据法上,对在司法程序中提出的证据必须要具有关联性[relevancy]和可采性[admissibility]方可用来证明案件事实,否则将依有关证据规则予以排除。其证据表现形式主要有言词证据、实物证据、书面证据、司法认知等。

——元照英美法词典

evidence n.

1. Something (including testimony, documents, and tangible objects) that tends to prove or disprove the existence of an alleged fact; anything presented to the senses and offered to prove the existence or nonexistence of a fact .

2. See fact in evidence under FACT.

3. The collective mass of things, esp. testimony and exhibits, presented before a tribunal in a given dispute .

4. The body of law regulating the admissibility of what is offered as proof into the record of a legal proceeding -Also termed (in sense 4) rules of evidence; law of evidence -evidence, vb.

——Black"s Law Dictionary

干货 | 法律英语词义辨析:证据

Admissibility/Relevance/Weight/Sufficiency

上述单词都与证据规则有关

Admissibility

Admissibility

n.【(证据的)可采性】指具有在听审、庭审或其他程序中被允许作为证据提出的品质或状况。证据的可采性部分取决于有关法律规则或诉讼规则的规定,部分取决于证据本身与待证事实是否具有相关性。同一证据可能为此目的具有可采性,而为另一目的则不具有可采性。错误地采信或排除证据可构成上诉的理由。

——元照英美法词典

Admissibility

n. The quality, state, or condition of being allowed to be entered into evidence in a hearing, trial, or other official proceeding.

“‘Admissibility ’can best be thought of as a concept consisting of two quite different aspects: disclosure to the trier of fact and express or implied permission to use as "evidence.’ If we think of admissibility as a question of disclosure or nondisclosure, it is usually easy to say whether or not an item of evidence has been admitted. When we consider the question of permissible use, the concept seems much more complex. In the first place, evidence may be ‘admissible’ for one purpose but not for another.... In the second place, questions of the permissible use of evidence do not arise only at the time of disclosure to the trier of fact. The court may have to consider admissibility in deciding whether to give the jury a limiting instruction, whether or not an opponent’s rebuttal evidence is relevant, and whether or not counsel can argue to the jury that the evidence proves a particular point.”

例如:

conditional admissibility

(1904) The evidentiary rule that when a piece of evidence is not itself admissible, but is admissible if certain other facts make it relevant. The evidence becomes admissible on condition that counsel later introduce the connecting facts. If counsel does not satisfy this condition, the opponent is entitled to have the conditionally admitted piece of evidence struck from the record, and to have the judge instruct the jury to disregard it.

——Black"s Law Dictionary

Relevance

Relevance

n. 使者;使节;公使

relevancy 【有关;相关性;关联】

relevant 【有关的;相关的;关联的】

干货 | 法律英语词义辨析:证据

relevant evidence【相关的证据;有关联性的证据】

可以证明或否定所提出的事实的证据;对案件的有关事实可以或多或少加以证明或否定的证据。“相关的”证据不但能证明(或否定)案件的争议事实,而且包括从所证明(或否定)的事实可以推断出争议的事实是否存在。(material evidence)

——元照英美法词典

Relevance

The quality, state, or condition of being relevant; relation or pertinence to the issue at hand. -Also termed relevancy.

relevant

Logically connected and tending to prove or disprove a matter in issue; having appreciable probative value -that is, rationally tending to persuade people of the probability or possibility of some alleged fact. Cf. MATERIAL(2), (3).

"The word ‘relevant’ means that any two facts to which it is applied are so related to each other that according to the common course of events one either taken by itself or in connection with other facts proves or renders probable the past, present, or future existence or non-existence of the other. " James Fitzjames Stephen, A Digest of the Law of Evidence 2 (4th ed. 1881).

relevant evidence. Evidence tending to prove or disprove a matter in issue. Relevant evidence is both probative and material and is admissible unless excluded by a specific statute or rule Fed. R Evid. 401-403 -Also termed competent evidence. Cf. material evidence; probative evidence.

——Black"s Law Dictionary

Weight

Weight

weight of the evidence【证据的证明效力;证据的更大分量】指某一证据在证明诉讼双方当事人的主张方面更加倾向于支持其中一方当事人的主张。如果陪审团所作的裁断与证据的证明效力相违背,将导致对案件重新审判。

——元照英美法词典

weight

Figuratively, the quality of possessing due efficacy; impressiveness, importance, and preponderance .

例如:

weight of the evidence

干货 | 法律英语词义辨析:证据

The persuasiveness of some evidence in comparison with other evidence . See BURDEN OF PERSUASION.

greater weight of the evidence

See PREPONDERANCE OF THE EVIDENCE.

manifest weight of the evidence

(1859) The very clear persuasiveness of some evidence in comparison with other evidence. This phrase denotes a deferential standard of review under which a verdict will be reversed or disregarded only if another outcome is obviously correct and the verdict is clearly unsupported by the evidence. Cf. WEIGHT OF THE EVIDENCE.

——Black"s Law Dictionary

Sufficiency

Sufficiency

sufficiency of evidence【证据充分】用来确定案件是否应交由陪审团审判,或案件证据是否在法律上足以支持陪审团裁断的法律标准。

sufficient evidence【充分的证据】指证据在数量、性质及证明力上,足以使公正者做出不致有合理怀疑的判决。(weight of the evidence)

——元照英美法词典

sufficiency-of-evidence test

(1972) Criminal procedure.

1. The guideline for a grand jury considering whether to indict a suspect: if all the evidence presented were uncontradicted and unexplained, it would warrant a conviction by the fact-trier.

2. A standard for reviewing a criminal conviction on appeal, based on whether enough evidence exists to justify the fact-trier" s finding of guilt beyond a reasonable doubt. -Also termed sufficiency-of-the-evidence test.

——Black"s Law Dictionary

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