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干货 | 法律英语词义辨析

烟雨逐月 1999-10-31 14:56:15 热度:4424°C

前言

小时候,我们听过很多故事,比如童话故事、神话传说、民间寓言等。“狼来了”这个故事小伙伴们应该都听过吧,这个故事就告诉大家千万不要撒谎骗人。所以,小伙伴们猜到今天要辨析的词了吗?没错今天我们要辨析的词汇就是“诈骗、哄骗”。

Deception/ Deceit/ Fraud

诈骗、哄骗

NO.1 deception

本身不是罪行,却与多种罪行相关,如诈骗财产、保险单等,以诈骗行为获取报偿;但是在英国法上指一种犯罪,指不诚实地获得他人财产,或利用语言或行为或意思表达以获得金钱上的好处。

(The act of deliberately causing someone to believe that something is true when the actor knows it to be false.

——Black"s Law Dictionary)

例如:

You"vebeenthevictimofarathercrueldeception.

He believes many psychics"are fraud who rely on perception and subtle deception.

NO.2 deceit

多为一种可予起诉的民事侵权行为,指故意以虚假陈述或因无知传播虚假陈述使他方当事人相信,从而导致他方当事人遭受损失的违法行为。

干货 | 法律英语词义辨析

(The act of intentionally leading someone to believe that something is not true; an act designed to deceive or trick.

——Black"s Law Dictionary)

例如:

Everyone was involved in this web of deceit.

They have been involved in a campaign of deceit.

NO.3 fraud

涉及内容极广,多为民事侵权行为,但也可以是犯罪,指为获得物质利益而通过陈述或行为所作的虚假表示。

(A knowing misrepresentation or knowing concealment of a material fact made to induce another to act to his or her detriment.

——Black"s Law Dictionary)

例如:

预付费欺诈(advance-fee fraud)

邮件诈骗(mail fraud)

She was charged with credit card fraud.

在欺诈别人构成犯罪以后,如果对方提起诉讼,那么实施欺诈的人就会成为法庭上的被告,接下来我们就来辨析一下法律英语中的“被告”。

Defendant/ Respondent

Accused/ Defender/ Libelee

被告

干货 | 法律英语词义辨析

NO.1 defendant

通用语,可用于一般民事或刑事案件的初审中,与其相对的原告为plaintiff。

(A person sued in a civil proceeding or a accused in a criminal proceeding.

——Black"s Law Dictionary)

例如:

Heoverturnedtheconviction,sayingthedefendant was entrapped.

Thejuryfoundthedefendantinnocent.

NO.2respondent

用于上诉审(此时也称为appellee )及申请获得特别命令或离婚、遗嘱验证等衡平法案件中,与其相对的原告(或上诉人)有appellant, petitioner, applicant等。

(The party against whom an appeal is taken; APPELLEE. In some appellate courts, the parties are designated as petitioner and respondent.

——Black"s Law Dictionary)

例如:

In addition, the respondent disclosed professional confidences to one of the patients.

Both the petitioner and respondent provide for the upkeep of the children.

NO.3 accuesd

专指刑事被告,与之相对的原告有plaintiff(刑事自诉人)或prosecution(公诉方)。

(someone who has been blamed for wrongdoing; a person who has been arrested and brought before a magistrate or who has been formally charged with a crime.

——Black"s Law Dictionary)

干货 | 法律英语词义辨析

例如:

The accused was found innocent.

All the accused have pleaded guilty.

NO.4 defender

苏格兰专门用语,与其相对的原告为pursuer。

(Someone who defends, such as the defendant in a lawsuit, a person using self-defense, or defense counsel.

——Black"s Law Dictionary)

例如:

Theonusofproofisreversedinlibelactionsandplacedfirmly onthedefender.

NO.5 libelee

专指海事或离婚案件的原告,与其相对的原告为libelant。

(The party against whom a libel has been filed in admiralty or ecclesiastical.

——Black"s Law Dictionary)

例如:

The man is the libelee in the divorce case.

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